Home arrow Knowledgebase
Knowledge Base
Dispersion of heavy organics in petroleum fluids

Four different effects (mechanisms) are recognized for such depositions. One or more of these mechanisms would describe the organic depositions that may occur during oil production, transportation or processing. The degree of dispersion of heavy organics in petroleum fluids depends upon the chemical composition of the petroleum.


The fouling material can consist of either living organisms or a non-living substance. It is usually distinguished from other surface-growth phenomena in that it occurs on a surface of a component, system or plant performing a defined and useful function, and that the fouling process impedes or interferes with this function.

Corrosion in Sulfuric Acid

Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a strong mineral acid. It is soluble in water at all concentrations. The corrosion rate in high temperature sulfuric acid is magnitudes lower than the corrosion rates of Hastelloy, titanium and zirconium. Sulfuric acid in concentrations between 10% and 90% is known to be especially corrosive.

During Pipelaying Preventing Damage to Protect Corrosion

The nature of offshore pipelines dictates that the most cost effective and reliable method of providing the CP component is the use of zinc (Zn) or aluminum (Al) alloy bracelet anodes.

Degradation of Polymer

Many polymers, especially step-growth polymers, are degraded by specific chemicals such as strong acids and strong alkalis. They are made by condensation polymerization, so degradation is a reversal of the synthesis reaction.

Corrosion of Non-metals

Most of the ceramic materials are almost entirely immune to corrosion. The strong ionic and/or covalent bonds that hold them together leave very little free chemical energy in the structure; they can be thought of as already corroded. Polymer degradation is due to a wide array of complex and often poorly-understood physiochemical processes.

Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Materials

Corrosion is the disintegration of a material into its constituent atoms due to chemical reactions with its surroundings. This means a loss of electrons of metals reacting with water and oxygen. The serviceability of structures, technical plants and equipment requires that materials are sufficiently resistant to corrosion in order to exclude failure during their planned design life span.

Precious Metal Platinum

Platinum (Pt) is a valuable precious metal that is sought all over the world. Its brilliance as well as its malleability, ductility and resistance to corrosion make platinum a highly popular choice for use in jewelry such as engagement rings and eternity rings. It is also used in laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and catalytic converters.

Precious Metals

The precious metal is a rare naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value. The best-known precious metals are gold and silver. While both have industrial uses, they are better known for their uses in art, jewellery and coinage. Other precious metals include: ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum. Platinum is the most widely traded.

Use of Ferrous Metals in Precision Presswork and Tooling

Ferrous metals are those metals which contain iron. They may have small amounts of other metals or other elements added, to give the required properties. All ferrous metals are magnetic and give little resistance to corrosion.

Marine Anti-Rust Coating and Sealer
  • Marine corrosion control
  • Anti-slip
  • Corrosion protection
  • Anti-rust paint
Non-metallic Failures

Failures often occur in non-metallic substances: plastic, glass, and composite materials.
A bottle of glass failed in the neck as it was being opened. The hackle lines on the fracture surface pointed back to a localized crushed area at the lip of the bottle beneath the foil. Exemplar testing by striking the edge with the corner of a hammer replicated the damage.

Common Corrosion Failures

Exposure of the unprotected metal components to the environment will cause them to corrode. The degree of corrosion depends upon the severity of the environment as well as the metal’s inherent resistance to corrosion.

Some common biocides of cooling tower

The most common organo-tin compound (Non-Oxidizing Biocide) is bis (tributyl-tin) oxide. This class of compounds is particularly effective against wood rotting organisms and slime-forming fungi

Method for measuring biocide effectiveness in cooling water systems

The most often used method for measuring biocide effectiveness is the one which is the most difficult to quantify and is the most subjective in nature (i.e., the appearance of a cooling tower and its associated heat transfer equipment.)

<< Start < Prev 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Next > End >>

Results 16 - 30 of 316

Related . . .