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Corrosives Harm Us

Corrosive material, liquid or solid, that causes visible destruction or irreversible alterations in human skin tissue at the site of contact, or in the case of leakage from its packaging, a liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel.

The diamond industries, Supply chain, Sources & Symbolism

The diamond industry can be broadly separated into two basically distinct categories: one dealing with gem-grade diamonds and another for industrial-grade diamonds. While a large trade in both types of diamonds exists, the two markets act in dramatically different ways.

Jewellery Diamond

Properties, Formation, etc.
Diamond  is one of the two best known forms (or allotropes) of carbon. The other equally well known allotrope is graphite. Diamond's hardness and high dispersion of light make it useful for industrial applications and jewelry.

Jewellery Gold

Applications, Value, Gold & The Money Supply, & Production
Jewellery, particularly when made with precious materials, is generally considered valuable and desirable. A variety of precious gemstones, coins or other precious items can be used, often set into precious metals. Common metals used for jewellery include gold, platinum or silver. Most gold alloys used in jewellery range from 10K to 22K gold.

Jewellery-Types of Jewellery; Materials and methods

Jewellery comprises ornamental objects worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. Costume jewellery is made from less valuable materials. However, jewellery can and has been made out of almost every kind of material. Common types of Jewellery: Anklets (ankle bracelets), Armlets (upper arm bracelets), Earrings, etc.

Properties and Uses of Sulfuric Acid
Sulfuric acid ionises in water in two stages:
  • H2SO4(l) + H2O(l) -----> HSO4-(aq) + H3O+(aq)
  • HSO4-(aq) + H2O(l) SO42-(aq) + H3O+(aq)
Manufacture of Sulfuric Acid- Lead Chamber Process

Lead chamber process is used to produce much of the acid used to make fertilizers; it produces a relatively dilute acid (62%–78% H2SO4)).

Types of Carbon Steel

Carbon steel is the steel where the main alloying constituent is carbon. It can be devided into four classes based on carbon content:

  • Mild & low carbon steel
  • Medium carbon steel
  • High carbon steel
  • Ultra-high carbon steel
Classifications of Steel

Carbon Steels: More than 90% of all steels are carbon steels. These steels contain varying amounts of carbon(C) and not more than 1.65% manganese(Mn), 0.60% silicon(Si), and 0.60% copper(cu).

Hydrogen Damage in Boiler Tubes

Hydrogen damage in boiler tubes is caused by a corrosive reaction between steam and steel, shown below:

  • Fe + H2O = Fe3O4 + H2
Hydrogen Attack

Hydrogen Attack, Mechanism, Detection, Assessment & Evaluation
The equipments in contact with hydrogen at high temperature and pressure may suffer from hydrogen damage. Atomic hydrogen diffuses readily in steels and cracking may result from the formation of methane or hydrogen at high pressure and temperature in internal voids in the metal. This results in fissuring at grain boundaries and decarburisation with loss of strength, which can makes the material unreliable or dangerous.

Fuel Analysis & Metalworking Fluids Analysis

Fuel analysis is very important part of the refining process. By continuously monitoring the free water and suspended solids in fuels, operations can immediately detect inefficiencies or failures in filters, coalescers and separators and possible contamination from other sources.

Coolant Analysis

If a coolant is not chemically correct for the application temperature, the rates of corrosion, erosion, pitting and scale formation will almost double for every 15ºC increase in temperature above 71.1 ºC. Over 50% of engine failure is due to a problem in the cooling system.


Weld-cracking is a very dangerous situation that compromises the ability of a fusion welded structure or machine to perform the design functions in a safe and consistent way.

Hydrogen Embrittlement & Protect the steel from corrosion

Hydrogen embrittlement failures are frequently unexpected and sometimes catastrophic. An externally applied load is not required as the tensile stresses may be due to residual stresses in the material.

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