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DNA Synthesizer

Extremely complex DNA molecules are composed of different chemical compounds called nucleotides. They are:

  • Guanine,
  • Adenine,
  • Thymine, and
  • Cytosine.

These component molecules fit together. Adenine links with Thymine, and Cytosine links with Guanine. A strand of DNA, made up with a given number of nucleotides, follows a certain pattern. All DNA strands, however, link with their exact opposites, forming one DNA molecule, the famed double helix. On occasion, however, DNA molecules may deform. This phenomenon may lead to a mismatch in the pairing of DNA links. For example; if Guanine linked with Adenine, the strand of deoxyribonucleic acid would be defective. This mutation is called Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP).

Image of DNA Synthesizers

DNA synthesizer is the machine used to custom-build DNA molecules to contain a particular sequence of nucleotides. It can creates specific DNA molecules for use in the treatment of a variety of diseases by replacing a faulty or damaged section of DNA with a repaired section.

DNA synthesizer uses methods developed by scientists conducting the Human Genome Project. The Human Genome Project provided a map of the entire human genome, enabling scientists to decipher specific sequences of nucleotides that are responsible for certain types of protein synthesis in the body. DNA synthesis is the process of copying a strand of DNA in a biological cell before the cell replicates or divides. Since the base pairs in DNA always contain the same two complementary nucleotides - adenine always bonds with thymine, and cytosine always bonds with guanine - DNA synthesizers can built DNA molecules using one strand of DNA as a blueprint and then use DNA protein synthesis to repair any discrepancies in the strand.

A DNA sequencer is the DNA synthesizer that is used to analyze the sequence of nucleotides in a DNA sample. It is often used to analyze DNA evidence from a crime scene to provide a definitive DNA fingerprint of a potential suspect. DNA sequencing is accomplished most often by the dideoxy, or chain termination method. In this method, normal DNA protein synthesis is interrupted periodically by the introduction of a compound called deoxynucleotide triphosphate, which is substituted as the DNA chain is elongated by the addition of the normal nucleotides. These dideoxy compounds fluoresce under examination by a laser beam, functioning like tags to mark out specific sections of the DNA molecule. Each section or DNA sequence can then be separated and analyzed.

DNA synthesizers may be programmable to handle batch analysis and are typically differentiated by cycle times and sample capacity and purity. They may also be PC compatible, allowing operators to monitor processes through a web browser.