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Manufacture of Iron gall ink

Galls can be treated in different ways to make iron gall ink.

Iron Corrosion and thermodynamic or chemical energy of metals

Iron Corrosion/Ferrous metal Corrosion
The most common metal, iron recovered from archaeological sites. Due to the variety of conditions and environments within which corrosion can occur, and the number and complexity of the corrosion products, iron presents the conservator with the most difficult problems of all the metals of antiquity. Iron and steel corrode easily in many media including most outdoor atmospheres. Usually they are selected not for their corrosion resistance but for such properties as strength, ease of fabrication, and cost. These differences show up in the rate of metal lost due to rusting.

Controlling the internal corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines

The presence of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and free water can cause severe corrosion problems in oil and gas pipelines. Internal corrosion in wells and pipelines is influenced by temperature, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide content, water chemistry, flow velocity, oil or water wetting and composition and surface condition of the steel. A small change in one of these parameters can change the corrosion rate considerably, due to changes in the properties of the thin layer of corrosion products that accumulates on the steel surface.

Black powder’s effects: Management requires multiple approaches

Description of black powder’s physical and mechanical properties;
Summary and brief discussion of various black-powder management methods

Black powder occurs globally, and it is regenerative, forming inside natural gas pipelines as their internal walls corrode, and spurred by the reaction of iron in ferrous pipeline steel with condensed moisture containing oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide. These chemicals are benign in dry sales gas but can become corrosive when dissolved in water.

The role of green rust [Iron(II)-iron(III) hydroxy-salts] in the environment

Iron(II)-iron(III) hydroxy-salts known as green rusts initially were identified and studied as corrosion products of steel and iron. Green rusts are unstable compounds containing a mixture of ferrous and ferric iron and are known as green rusts due to their bluish green colors.

Sulfide minerals & their petrography

Petrographic Observations of Iron Sulfide , Copper Sulfide , and Zinc Sulfide  in Freshwater Canal Sediment
Sulfide minerals are well known to be important hosts for metals in many freshwater and marine sediments, but very little is known about their petrography, particularly in fine-grained recent freshwater sediments.

Compositions of Diesel Engine Cooling System

The heavy duty diesel engines impose unique and stringent requirements on the cooling system; and the expected life to overhaul for a heavy duty diesel engine is generally four to five times that of an automobile engine, despite the fact that the load factor is usually over twice as much and the gross vehicle weight per horsepower is usually five to eight times as high. For a diesel to perform in this manner, good cooling system maintenance is necessary.

Automotive Antifreeze & Diesel Engine

Automotive Antifreeze Isn't Good Enough For Your Diesel Engine!
Unlike an automobile or conventional gas system, a diesel system's substantially higher load factor, longer life, and unique wet sleeve linear design create very special maintenance needs.

Corrosion control for oil and gas industry
Corrosion control, applicable for oil and gas industry are as follows:
  • Material Design
  • Protecting Coating, Inhibition, And Cathodic Protection
  • Corrosion Inspection and Monitoring
  • Corrosion Assessment
Chemical corrosion resistance coating on aluminum substrates by sol-gel process

(using zirconium tetra-n-butoxide as a starting material)
Corrosion occurs when the metals are in contact with air, water, acids, alkaline, solvents, chemicals or in combination. Two of the most common way to deal with chemical corrosion are Linings and coatings of the substrate. If the material is not protected, the corrosion can take place every moment. To improve the corrosion resistance to salt, acid and strongly alkaline attack, a sol-gel film using zirconium tetra-n-butoxide as a starting material has been coated directly on the surface of aluminum substrates via repeating one or twice dipcoating process.

Linings & coatings- Chemical corrosion protection

Corrosion is the wearing away of a surface, when the metals are in contact with air, water, acids, alkaline, solvents, chemicals or in combination. If the material is not protected, the corrosion can take place every moment.

Inspection techniques to detect Corrosion under insulation (CUI)

Corrosion under insulation is a real threat to the on stream reliability of many plants of today and it can cause failures in areas that are not normally of a primary concern to an inspection program.

Crude oil effects on the corrosion of steel

Crude oil has a significant effect of the corrosion of steel in crude oil or brine mixtures, and these effects are significantly different for different crude oils.

Corrosion- Silica containers in high performance glass melt

Glass corrosion and refractory interaction
(Silica containers in high performance glass melt
Glass with high chemical content, developed for optical and electronic applications; needs high purity refractories in the melting environment.

IntegraHeader (Power), Custom Pipe, Duct and Stacks- Fibrex

manufactures pipe and other products to meet Custom Pipe, Duct and Stacks requirements. This may be on the basis of Fibrex recommendations for the intended application or the customer's own specifications. The superiority of the IntegraHeader for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers lies in the design and manufacturing technology behind the Integra-Nozzle. IntegraHeader is a tradmark of Fibrex Corporation.

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